Objectives and Expected Outcome:- In the vast spectrum of Mech. Engg., this

subject gives a very very primitive but general information finding vide application in day to day life with emphasis upon the principles and fundamentals involved in the inter-conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy and vice versa, viz. all Automobile, Air-Craft, Generator and other stationary Heat Engines besides cooling machinery like Refrigerators, Air-Conditioners and water-coolers etc. The subject also offers a birds eye-view to all students about the common engineering materials finding vide application in Mech. Engg. Industry and about their strength and other related vital aspects. Since every student of engineering is already exposed to all afore-said machinery, he/she would feel very much self-satisfied and self-confident after learning the basic intricacies and whys and hows related with the fundamentals of the aforesaid machinery.

PART-A

1. Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics (08)

Definition of thermodynamic: Need to study thermodynamics; Application

areas of thermodynamic; Difference between Microscopic (or, Statistical)

thermodynamics and Macroscopic(or, Classical) thermodynamics; Brief

concept of continuum; Thermodynamic System : definition, types (Open,

Closed and Isolated) and their examples; Thermodynamic System Boundary : definition, types and their examples; Surroundings; Control(fixed) mass and Control Volume concept and their example ; Thermodynamic State; Thermodynamic Property: definition, types citing their examples; condition for any quantity to be a property; State postulate;Thermodynamic equilibrium (which includes Thermal, Mechanical and Chemical equilibrium etc.); Thermodynamic path; Thermodynamic process: definition, concept of reversible process, quasi-static (or, quasi-equilibrium) process, irreversible process, conditions for reversibility and how these are met with, non-flow processes and flow processes, method of representation of reversible and irreversible process on property diagrams; Cyclic process; Thermodynamic Cycle: definition and its concept; Energy and its forms (microscopic and macroscopic); Physical insight to internal energy; Energy transfer across system boundary i.e. transient energies (heat and work);Difference between heat and work; Sign conventions for heat and work interactions; heat and work as path functions; Equality of Temperature and Zeroth law of Thermodynamics.

2. First Law of Thermodynamics and its applications (12)

Definition, essence and corollaries or consequences of first law of Thermodynamics; Expressions for First law of Thermodynamics for a control

mass undergoing a Cycle and for process (i.e., a change in state of a control

mass) ; Concept of Enthalpy and total energy and differentiation between the

two – a thermodynamic property; Compressible and incompressible substances, Specific heats, Difference between Internal Energy and Enthalpy of ompressible and incompressible substances; Representation of first law of thermodynamics as rate equation; Analysis of non-flow/ flow process for a control mass undergoing constant volume, constant pressure, constant temperature, adiabatic and polytropic processes; Free Expansion Process and its examples, its representation on Property diagram; Review of concepts of control volume; Expressions of first law of thermodynamics for a control volume (i.e. open system) ; Steady State Steady Flow process and its examples; First law analysis of Steady State Flow process e.g. isochoric, isobaric, isothermal, isentropic and polytropic process; Throttling process and its applications; Flow energy or inertial energy of flowing fluids or, Energy transport by mass; Application of Steady State Flow Energy Equation to various engineering devices.

3. Second Law of Thermodynamics (16)

Limitations of first law of thermodynamics; and how 2nd law is fully able to

explain away and thus overcome those shortcomings of Ist law; Thermal

Reservoirs, source and sink (Low temperature and high temperatures); Heat

Engine, Heat Pump and Refrigerator: definitions, working,efficiency/performance and their real life examples. Justification as to why the actual efficiency of Heat Pump and Refrigerator shall also be ≤ 100% though on the face of it seems to be more than 100%; Various statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics and their equivalence; Philosophy of Carnot cycle and its consequences viz. how each of the individual four processes constituting the cycle contribute in optimizing the output and efficiency of the cycle; Carnot Engine, Carnot Refrigerator and Carnot Heat Pump: definitions, working, efficiency/performance and Limitations of the cycle; Carnot theorem for heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps; derivation of Carnot efficiency/COP (which seems to be more than 100%); Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Clausius theorem and Inequality;

Philosophy and concept of entropy; Entropy changes during various

processes; Temperature - Entropy Chart and representation of various

processes on it; Principle of Increase of Entropy; Applications of Entropy

Principle; Quality of Energy viz. high and low grade energies; Degradation of

Energy; Third Law of Thermodynamics.

PART-B

4. Gas Power Cycles (12)

Introduction; Concept and philosophy of Air Standard Cycle alongwith

associated assumptions and advantages; Air Standard Efficiency;

Nomenclature of reciprocating piston-cylinder arrangement with basic

definitions such as swept volume, clearance volume, compression ratio,

mean effective pressure etc; Otto Cycle (or constant volume heat addition

cycle), Diesel cycle (or constant pressure heat addition cycle) and Dual cycle

(Mixed or Composite or Limited Pressure cycle) with their representation on

P-V and T-S charts, their Air-standard (thermal) Efficiencies; Brayton Cycle,

Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual cycle under some defined similar

parametric conditions; Introduction to heat engines; Merits of I.C. Engines

and their important applications, Classification and constructional features of

I.C. Engines; working of two stroke and four stroke Petrol and Diesel engines

and their comparison.

5. Engineering Materials (05)

Materials and Civilization, Materials and Engineering, Classification of

Engineering Materials, Mechanical Properties of Materials: elasticity,

plasticity, strength, ductility, brittleness, melleability, toughness, resilience,

hardness, machinability, formability, weldability. Properties, Composition,

and Industrial Applications of materials: metals (ferrous- cast iron, tool Punjab

steels, stainless steels and non ferrous- Aluminum, brass, bronze ),

polymers (natural and synthetic , thermoplastic and thermosetting), ceramics

(glass, optical fibre glass, cements), composites ( fibre reinforced, metal

matrix), smart materials (piezoelectric, shape memory, thermochromic,

photochromic, magnetorheological), Conductors, Semiconductors and

insulators, Organic and Inorganic materials. Selection of materials for

engineering applications.

6. Centroid, Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia: (08)

Difference between centre of gravity and centroid. Determination of position

of centroid of plane geometric figures of I, U, H, L, T, C, Circular and

Triangular Sections. Centroid of Composite Areas. Determination of position

of Centre of Gravity (CG) of regular solids viz. Right Circular Cone, Solid

Hemisphere, thin Hollow Hemisphere. Area moment of inertia & mass

moment of inertia, Polar moment of inertia, Parallel axes Theorem (or

transfer formula), Perpendicular axes Theorem, Radius of gyration,

determination of area Moment of Inertia of I, U, H, L, T, C, Circular and

Triangular Sections along various axes. Mass moment of Inertia of Circular

Ring, Disc, Cylinder, Sphere and Cone about their axis of symmetry and

other axes.

Suggested Readings / Books

1. Nag P.K., Engineering Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw Hill.

2. Yadav R., Thermodynamics and Heat Engines, Central Publishing House, Allahabad

3. Rogers G. and Mayhew Y., Engineering Thermodynamics, Pearson Education.

4. Cengel Y.A. and Boles M.A., Thermodynamics – An Engineering Approach, Tata

McGraw Hill.

5. Rao Y.V.C., An Introduction to Thermodynamics, New Age International (P) Limited

Publishers.

6. Spalding D. B., Cole E. H., Engineering thermodynamics, ELBS series

7. Bedi D.S., Element of Mechanical Engineering, Khanna Publishers New Delhi

8. Donald R. Askeland, Pradeep P. Phule, Essentials of materials Science and

Engineering, Cenage Learning

9. A.K.Tayal Engineering Mechanics, Umesh Publications.

- Teacher: Harmeet singh